商标英译汉的原则与策略.doc

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北京理工大学珠海学院2011届本科生毕业论文 English-Chinese Translation of Trademarks Its principles and Strategies 学 院 外国语学院 专 业 姓 名 指导老师 商务英语 杜妍 学 号 职 称 161005106268 刘思佳 讲 师 中国·珠海 二○二○ 年 五 月 北京理工大学珠海学院2020届本科生毕业论文 毕业论文诚信承诺书 本人郑重承诺我所呈交的毕业论文 English-Chinese Translation of Trademarks Its principles and Strategies是在指导教师的指导下,独立开展研究或调查所取得的成果,文中引用他人的观点和材料,均在文后按顺序列出其参考文献,文中所使用的数据真实可靠。 承诺人签名 日期 年 月 日 English-Chinese Translation of Trademarks Its principles and Strategies Abstract Trademarks represent the image of a company and its products. Trademark is not only a symbol of goods but also a bridge for direct dialogue between producers and consumers. Therefore, having a unique trademark and appropriate translation is an extremely important factor for enterprise development. This paper lists some examples to analyze the principles and strategies of translating English trademarks into Chinese, and summarizes some matters needing attention in trademark. translation. Keywords trademarks, translation, principles and strategies 英文商标的汉译原则及策略 摘 要 商标代表着一个公司及其产品的形象,它不仅是商品的代号也是生产者和消费者直接对话的桥梁。因此,拥有一个独特的商标及得体的翻译更是企业发展的一个非常重要的因素。本文列举了一些实例来分析英文商标汉译的原则和策略,并总结了一些商标翻译的注意事项。 关键词商标;翻译;原则和策略 II Contents Introduction1 1 Linguistic Features of English Trademarks2 1.1 Simple and Clear Pronunciation2 1.2 Reflect the Characteristics of the Product2 1.3 Show the Symbolic Meaning and Aesthetic Connotation of Product3 2 Principles of Translating English Trademarks into Chinese4 2.1 Transliteration4 2.1.1 Pure Transliteration4 2.1.2 Homophone Translation5 2.1.3 Omission Transliteration6 2.2 Free Translation7 2.2.1 Pure Free Translation7 2.2.2 Selective Free Translation8 2.2.3 Free Translation of Increase or Decrease8 2.3 Combination of Transliteration and Free Translation9 2.3.1 Methods of Quoting Classics9 2.3.2 Half Transliteration and Half Free Translation10 2.3.3 Near Sound and Near Meaning Method10 2.3.4 The Near-tone Association Method11 2.4 Patchwork11 2.5 Literal Translation12 2.6 Transference12 3 Matters in Trademark Translation14 3.1 Focus on Consumer Groups and Highlight Commodity Characteristics14 3.2 Pay Attention to Cultural Differences15 3.3 Pay Attention to the Unification of Trademark Translation15 Conclusion16 References17 Acknowledgments18 Introduction Trademark translation has its own characteristics compared with other written forms. Its main function is to introduce the quality and performance of foreign goods to domestic consumers as a means of mass communication, so as to attract consumers’ attention and interest, and then it can stimulate consumers’ purchasing desire. Therefore, the process of translating English trademarks into Chinese is not a simple process of semantic equivalence from the source language to the target language Liu, 1998. Translators should pay more attention to the culture of the target language to make it conform to the value orientation, thinking mode, aesthetic taste and consumption psychology of the target language. In the international market, trademarks are often regarded as simplified enterprise names by entrepreneurs and consumers Tan, 2008. It is the core part of enterprise culture, and it is a significant symbol used by producers or operators of commodities to distinguish the commodities they produce and sell from other commodities. With the rapid development of economic globalization, the consumption level of the Chinese people has greatly increased, and trade activities between China and foreign enterprises have become more frequent. If an enterprise wants to further develop the international market, it should not only improve the product quality and trademark design, but also improve the quality of trademark translation. However, if a translator wants to successfully translate English trademark names into Chinese, he needs to follow the principles of trademark translation and apply translation strategies appropriately Shi, 2005. Even under certain circumstances, translators need to be creative. Therefore, based on some examples of translating English trademarks into Chinese, this paper makes a brief discussion on the language features of English trademarks, the principles of translating English trademarks, and the matters needing attention in translating English trademarksXu, 2002. 1 Linguistic Features of English Trademarks Trademark language is a special language form different from common languageLv, 2000; Wang, 2005; Hu, 2002. In order to let the public, understand the product positioning and expand the brand awareness, novelty and uniqueness are the language features that a successful trademark should have. Through the analysis and comparison of foreign commodity names, the author summarizes the following three characteristics of English trademark languageZhu, 2008. 1.1 Simple and Clear Pronunciation Trademark names should deeply embody the beauty of sound, meaning and form in language expression. A good trademark should be simple and clear to read, and easy for ordinary people to remember, understand and accept. For example, “Bing” is an international search engine, with concise pronunciation and only two syllables. In the source semantics, it is the meaning of heap, which reflects the amount of network information. However, its Chinese translation is “必应”, which is taken from the idiom “有求必应”. It easily reminds consumers that if they use “Bing”, they will find the desired answer. Another example is Tide(汰渍)washing powder, which not only shows the rich foam of washing powder, but also implies that this washing powder is a trend . Such trademarks also include Haier(海尔)household appliances, Camel(骆驼) outdoor products, canon(佳能)cameras, etc sun, 2001. The translation of these trademarks is highly concise and eye-catching, thus, a good trademark is the most direct and effective marketing method for enterprises or commodities. 1.2 Reflect the Characteristics of the Product The characteristics of many products are closely related to the brand name. For example, pacific Coffee(太平洋咖啡). From this brand, consumers can know that it is a coffee chain brand. “Pacific” has the meaning of peace, which can make customers think of drinking coffee and enjoying a comfortable and peaceful life. Another example is Playboy(花花公子)clothing, which shows that the brand is mainly male clothing. Through the above examples, it can be seen that a good trademark can have the effect of advertising. 1.3 Show the Symbolic Meaning and Aesthetic Connotation of Product A successful trademark should convey useful value information and embody its symbolic meaning and aesthetic connotation Hu, 1999. When translating trademarks, translators should improve their divergent thinking. They should not only consider the aesthetic taste of consumers so that people can enjoy beauty, but also stimulate their desire to buy and promote the sale of commodities. For example, the make-up brand “Make Up Forever”, whose Chinese trademark is “浮生若梦”, comes from a poem by Li Bai, a famous Chinese poet“夫天地者,万物之逆旅也;光阴者,百代之过客也。而浮生若梦,为欢几何”It gives consumers a poetic aesthetic feeling. At the same time, it also deeply conforms to the image of the brand and truly meets the translation standard of “faithfulness, elegance and expressiveness”. It leaves consumers a deep and beautiful impression and makes them desire to buy goodsZhang, 2008. 2 Principles of Translating English Trademarks into Chinese If the trademark of a commodity does not have any meaning, it is difficult for consumers to remember even if the quality of the commodity is good, and gradually its sales volume will not reach the ideal target. Many businesses are aware of the unique meaning and function of trademarks Bai, 2005. Therefore, in the process of translating trademarks into Chinese, the translator should not only simply and mechanically translate them from English to Chinese, but also pay attention to the meaning of trademarks and the concise language of trademarks. When choosing translation methods, translators should not only take into account the differences between Chinese and English languages, but also understand the needs of consumers, so as to make trademark translation more appropriate Wang, 2005. There are six common methods of trademark translation transliteration, free translation, combination of transliteration and free translation, patchwork, literal translation, transference Yu, 2003. 2.1 Transliteration In the process of translating English trademarks into Chinese, transliteration is a method widely accepted by Chinese. This method is mainly aimed at imported foreign products. Transliteration refers to a method of literal translation according to the pronunciation of trademarks in the process of translation between Chinese and English. In some cases, translators often encounter that some cultural words and intentions are vacant in the target language, and it is difficult to find corresponding and accurate words to express their meanings. At this time, the translator can use Chinese characters with similar pronunciation to translate the original trademark into Chinese trademark, or slightly change the pronunciation of the trademark for translation, this method is called transliteration. Transliteration can be divided into pure transliteration, homophone translation and omission transliteration in trademark translation. 2.1.1 Pure Transliteration The pure transliteration method is to find words with similar pronunciations in trademark translation according to the pronunciations of the original trademark, which is mainly applicable to proper nouns. This translation method generally does not emphasize the meaning of words but retains the phonological beauty of the original trademark. The Chinese trademark translated by transliteration method does not conform to the conventional combination pattern of Chinese vocabulary, but its pronunciation is clear and loud, and there are no uncommon words. Therefore, it is easy to be accepted by Chinese consumers because it sounds foreign and exotic, which caters to people’s curiosity and achieves the purpose of marketing. For example, the Swiss famous watch “ROLEX”, with advanced watchmaking technology, is ahead of the world famous watch field. The translator followed the principle of transliteration and directly translated it into“劳力士”. Nowadays, “劳力士” has been recognized and accepted by Chinese consumers. In addition, some professional nouns, such as place names and personal names, are usually translated by pure transliteration. Trademark named after geographical location Amazon River in South America is the trademark of Amazon(亚马孙); Santana(桑塔纳)is named after Santana Valley in California, USA; The brand name of American convenience store chain Wawa comes from the Wawa area of Pennsylvania; The brand name of mineral water Evain(依泉)is taken from Evain town in southeastern France. Trademarks named after people Hilton(希尔顿)international hotel is named after its founder Hilton, Conard; Ford(福特)is a world famous automobile brand and its company and brand name Ford comes from the surname of founder Henry Ford; DG(杜嘉班纳)fashion brands are named after two Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. 2.1.2 Homophone Translation Homophone translation refers to the reproduction of the original pronunciation while trying to find words that conform to the characteristics of commodities and cause good associations as homophonic pronunciation of the original trademark. This kind of translation gives the translator relatively loose thinking space and enables the translator to translate trademarks more flexibly. Translators can give full play to people’s subjective initiative in translation practice and associate the functions and characteristics contained in trademarks so as to conform to consumers’ consumption psychology. Therefore, homophone translation can achieve the same effect as pure transliteration in trademark translation to some extent. For example “Lay’s” is the name of a potato chip, obviously because the name of the founder of the brand is Lay. Its Chinese translation is“乐事”, which means “happy things”. Its Chinese translation instantly sublimated the meaning of the trademark and left a deep impression on consumers. At the same time, it vividly displayed the consumer group and brand image. Its Chinese translation reminds consumers that potato chips with different tastes stimulate their taste buds and it tastes so good that people can smile happily, which is extremely appropriate to the advertisement that eating potato chips is a happy thing. Another example is Coca-Cola, which is regarded as a successful trademark translation case. In 1927, Coca-Cola entered China and was transliterated into the Chinese name of“蝌蝌啃蜡”. Its strange name reminds people of some tadpoles eating candles. However, who would be interested in the drink with this name Soon, Coca-Cola s sales in China were dismal. In order to make the beverage popular with consumers, Coca-Cola Company takes“可口可乐”as the new translated name of this beverage. It keeps the transliteration in English and even has more meaning than it. Coca-Cola is similar to the Chinese character“可口可乐”in pronunciation. Its Chinese meaning makes consumers easily think of this delicious beverage, and it is easy to read and recite. Finally, Coca-Cola is popular all over the country, accounting for 42 of the market share in 2019, ranking first. The third example is Cleanclear. As a skin care brand which dedicated to meeting the skin needs of young girls, the translator s translation of “可伶可俐” is quite appropriate. It is greatly consistent with their brand concept of bringing clean, clear and beautiful skin to young girls. Its Chinese trademark is not only in line with the basic characteristics of commodities, but also novel and eye-catching. 2.1.3 Omission Transliteration Omission transliteration is to simplify and omit trademark names during translation, especially when some trademark words are long and have more syllables, the translator can use omission to complete his successful translation. It is characterized by omitting parts that are difficult to translate or need not to be translated according to the needs of commodity expression and Chinese customs, so that trademark names are concise and conform to Chinese aesthetics. For example, YSL is an acronym consisting of the initials of Yves Saint Laurent. If all the acronyms are translated, the translated name is very long and
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